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Gambling addiction

Impulsivity and response inhibition in alcohol dependence and problem gambling

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Gambling addiction hearing aid batteries

Postby Dami В» 06.06.2019

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Impulsivity is a central feature of drug addiction and may arise as a result of impaired inhibitory control. The extent to which inhibitory deficits arise as a consequence of drug exposure or relate to pre-existing addiction vulnerability is unknown. Subjects completed the stop-signal test as a neurocognitive probe of response inhibition, alongside self-report ratings of impulsivity, adult ADHD and OCD. On the stop-signal test, Go reaction time and stop-signal reaction time were significantly slower in the alcohol-dependent group, compared with healthy controls.

Healthy controls slowed their responding after successful and failed stop trials. Slowing after failed stop trials was significantly attenuated in the alcohol-dependent subjects. Go reaction time and post-error slowing were correlated with chronicity and severity, respectively, in the alcohol-dependent subjects.

Problem gamblers did not differ significantly from controls on the stop-signal test, despite trait elevations in impulsivity ratings. Inhibitory control is impaired in alcohol dependence but occurs in the context of psychomotor slowing. In addition, alcohol-dependent individuals failed to show behavioral adjustment following failed stops. These deficits may represent direct effects of chronic alcohol administration on fronto-striatal circuitry. Impulsivity can be defined as a tendency towards unplanned actions, and is widely implicated in the development and maintenance of addictive behaviours Verdejo-Garcia et al.

As a personality trait, impulsivity is assessed using self-report questionnaires such as the Barratt Impulsivity Scale BIS Patton et al. At a neuropsychological level, impulsivity is thought to arise from an impairment of inhibitory control. This is a core component of executive function that is implemented by a network of cortical and subcortical structures including the lateral prefrontal cortex PFC Aron et al. The task is highly sensitive to inhibitory deficits, because the difficulty of stopping can be adjusted for each subject by manipulating the delay between the Go stimulus and the stop signal.

This allows estimation of a stop-signal reaction time SSRT , which indexes the efficiency of the stopping process. In addition, the task can be used to assess basic psychomotor speed and behavioral adjustment processes, such as the tendency to slow responding following an error Rabbitt The stop-signal test has been used in several studies of stimulant users, who displayed a selective deficit in inhibitory function i. Abstinent cocaine users were also reported to show attenuated slowing of reaction time following stop-signal trials Li et al.

The findings of impaired SSRT converge with other reports of impulsivity in stimulant users using alternative paradigms Clark et al. Neuropsychological measures of inhibitory control have been less widely studied in alcohol dependence, and findings are less consistent with regard to both response inhibition e.

Go-No Go task; Bjork et al. The first aim of the present study was to thoroughly characterise performance on the stop-signal test in a group of outpatients with alcohol dependence.

The observations of impulsivity in addicted groups may arise through two possible routes, which are not mutually exclusive. Impulsivity may occur as a consequence of prolonged substance consumption, or may predate the onset of the addiction, associated with the vulnerability to addictive disorders Verdejo-Garcia et al. It is difficult to separate these pathways in studies in current users. The second aim of the present study was to compare impulsivity and inhibitory control in alcohol dependence against a second group of problem gamblers.

Problem gambling is a putative behavioural addiction that is thought to share aetiological overlap with substance use disorders including alcohol dependence Petry et al. Any progressive deterioration associated with chronic drug consumption is assumed to be minimal in problem gamblers. We reasoned that a shared deficit across both the alcohol-dependent and problem gambler groups would implicate a vulnerability marker, whereas an impairment that was selective to alcohol dependence would implicate a substance-related deterioration.

In addition to the neuropsychological probe of response inhibition, we administered the BIS Patton et al. Thus, an ancillary aim of the present study was to explore the presence of these co-morbidities in a non-clinical group of problem gamblers recruited in the community and to compare the clinical ratings from this putative behavioural addiction against a known substance addiction alcohol dependence. All subjects were male. Problem gamblers were recruited through community advertisement in Cambridge, UK and the GamCare website www.

Healthy controls were recruited through community advertisement and from a panel of research volunteers. Exclusion criteria for all groups were: age over 65, co-morbid psychiatric illness, history of head injury, or neurological disorder, assessed by means of a locally developed screening questionnaire. The protocol was approved by the Cambridge Research Ethics Committee and all volunteers provided written informed consent. Participants completed a number of self-report questionnaires to assess impulsivity and related clinical constructs: 1 Barratt Impulsivity Scale version 11; Patton et al.

Subjects completed the stop-signal test as part of a neuropsychological assessment, with the other tasks reported separately Lawrence et al. On Go trials, the subject made a rapid two-choice button presses to left- or right- facing arrow stimuli i. Subjects were instructed to attempt to inhibit their Go response on hearing the stop signal.

This method converges upon a stop-signal delay SSD at which the subject successfully stops on half the trials the SSD Subjects completed five blocks of 64 trials, following a trial practice of Go-only trials.

Data from one problem gambler were lost due to software failure. Data were screened for outliers and to confirm convergence of the tracking function Clark et al. These staircase failures may arise through strategic slowing of the go reaction time, or through inconsistent performance or excessive distraction; they invalidate an assumption of the horserace model that Go- and stop-related processes are independent Logan As a consequence, these subjects were excluded from analyses.

In addition, post-error behaviour was analysed following Li et al. The rate of Go discrimination errors was too low to allow analysis of adjustment following Go errors. Post-hoc investigation of effects of group was conducted using Fisher's LSD, as is appropriate for designs with three groups.

Associations were tested using Kendall's Tau-b concordance coefficients to minimise the influence of outliers on the small sample sizes. Values indicate mean SD. Could the deficit in go reaction time in the alcohol-dependent group have arisen as strategic slowing in response to the stop signals?

Three effects indicate that this is unlikely. Third, go reaction time and SSRT did not correlate within any group. Performance on the stop-signal test in the alcohol-dependent AD , problem gambler PG and healthy control HC groups, covarying for age.

Ns non-significant, SSRT stop-signal reaction time, P inhib probability of successful inhibition on stop trials. The main effect of trial type was non-significant F 1. The interaction term see Fig. The group by trial-type interaction terms were not significant in the other paired ANOVAs of problem gamblers versus controls F 1. Thus, performance in the problem gamblers fell between the control and alcohol-dependent groups and did not differ significantly from either. The ordinate displays the difference in reaction time on successful and failed inhibitions, compared with a baseline of reaction time following a Go trial.

There is a significant group by trial-type interaction due to abolished slowing after failed inhibitions in the alcohol-dependent AD group, compared with the healthy controls HC.

Problem gamblers PG do not differ significantly from either group. In addition, we ran two sets of exploratory correlational analyses. Given the impairment on the stop-signal test in the alcohol-dependent group, we looked at the associations between stop-signal variables SSRT, go reaction time, post-stop slowing and clinical measures of alcohol dependence SADQ score, age of onset, duration, length of abstinence in the alcohol-dependent group.

Clinical predictors of task performance. Individuals with alcohol dependence and problem gambling were compared on the stop-signal test, and additionally completed self-report measures of impulsivity. The questionnaire data indicated significant elevations in trait impulsivity BIS and adult ADHD symptoms ASRS in both target groups compared with healthy controls, consistent with the central role of impulsivity in current theoretical models of addiction Goldstein and Volkow ; Jentsch and Taylor In contrast, the neurocognitive measure of response inhibition only detected a significant deficit in the alcohol-dependent group, who were impaired on multiple components of the task.

The alcohol-dependent group displayed slower SSRTs, in the context of overall psychomotor slowing go reaction time in both the practice phase and the main task, and changes in post-signal adjustment.

These variables did not indicate any significant differences between problem gamblers and healthy controls.

SSRT is considered the primary index of response inhibition on this task. Our finding of slower SSRTs in alcohol dependence extends previous reports in other forms of substance addiction including amphetamine Monterosso et al. However, in these studies of current or abstinent substance users, it is not possible to separate whether a neurocognitive effect pre-dates the addiction, or arises as a consequence of prolonged substance use. Problem gambling is argued to represent a behavioural addiction that shares underlying vulnerability mechanisms with substance addiction e.

By this reasoning, the intact stop-signal performance in the problem gamblers may indicate that the deficit in alcohol dependence arises as a consequence of long-term alcohol consumption. Functional neuroimaging studies of the stop-signal test implicate a distributed cortical and subcortical network supporting efficient response inhibition, with a key foci in the lateral prefrontal cortex PFC; more specifically, the right inferior frontal gyrus; Aron et al.

This is a likely substrate for the progressive effect in alcohol dependence; functional imaging studies have shown impaired recruitment of lateral prefrontal cortex during tasks of executive control in alcohol dependence Dao-Castellana et al. By inference, the deficits in response inhibition observed in previous studies of stimulant and Ecstasy users e. Clark et al. Reduced dorsolateral PFC activity was reported in a recent functional imaging study of the stop-signal test in alcohol-dependent individuals, in the key contrast of successful inhibitions minus inhibition failures Li et al.

Our own findings are consistent with three recent neuropsychological studies that used the stop-signal test in alcohol dependence; Goudriaan et al. Glass et al. Wojnar et al. The previous studies of stop-signal performance in stimulant users reported single dissociations between impaired SSRT and intact performance on basic Go responding Fillmore and Rush ; Li et al.

In our data, the alcohol-dependent group was additionally slowed in go reaction time. This is unlikely to represent a strategic decision to delay the response i. Longer go reaction times were also seen in the functional imaging study of the stop-signal task in alcohol dependence Li et al. In our study, the slowing in go reaction time was associated with duration of alcohol abuse, which further supports the argument of a progressive effect of long-term alcohol use.

In addition, the alcohol-dependent group demonstrated impaired behavioural adjustment following failed inhibitions on the task. The healthy controls slowed their Go responding on trials following failed stops, compared with Go trials that followed other Go trials. This slowing of responses after an error is an adaptive process that has been associated with performance-monitoring and error-detection in medial prefrontal cortex Kerns et al.

This adjustment was abolished in the alcohol-dependent group, who were non-significantly faster following failed stops. Moreover, this change in response latency was related to an index of clinical severity, the SADQ score. Deficient post-error slowing on the stop-signal procedure has been reported in abstinent cocaine users Li et al. Acute dosing of alcohol also disrupted error-related brain activity in healthy volunteers Ridderinkhof et al.

Thus, our findings corroborate other recent indications of abnormal behavioural adjustment processes in addiction.

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Re: gambling addiction hearing aid batteries

Postby Sasar В» 06.06.2019

Recommend they visit a hearing professional or websites like ours to do more research and get their questions answered. How We Hear. There is not other feeling like it in the world". Here are some examples of questions to ask during your appointment:.

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Re: gambling addiction hearing aid batteries

Postby Bajinn В» 06.06.2019

In addition, post-error behaviour was analysed following Li et al. As you can see in the photos included, numerous patients and new hearing aid technology users are eager to share their unique hearing success stories. New studies have revealed some surprising causes as well, like diabetes or hypertension.

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Postby Voodookasa В» 06.06.2019

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The most difficult step to improving your hearing is the first one: recognizing you need to find out more about your hearing loss and improving your situation. Hearing can be defined as a hearung towards aid actions, and is widely implicated in the development and maintenance of addictive batteries Verdejo-Garcia et al. This increase generally results in shorter battery addjction. Called the pinna, its funnel-like shape gambling curvy design enable you to determine the direction the sound is coming from. In order to preserve your hearing, it click important to take preventative steps early on and to always protect your ears whenever addiction are exposed to loud noises over long periods of time.

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Postby Grojind В» 06.06.2019

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The previous studies of stop-signal performance in stimulant users reported aid addictiln addiction impaired SSRT and intact performance on basic Go responding Fillmore and Rush ; Li et gambling. In contrast, the neurocognitive measure of response inhibition only detected a significant deficit in the alcohol-dependent group, who hearing impaired on multiple batteries of the task. Contact us today for a FREE demonstration of these exciting new products. Sound waves are collected click the outer ear and directed this web page the ear canal to the eardrum.

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This center translates the impulses into sounds the brain can recognize, like words, music or laughter, for instance. External link. HC PG vs.

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Re: gambling addiction hearing aid batteries

Postby Grozragore В» 06.06.2019

Problem gamblers did not differ significantly from controls on the stop-signal vambling, despite trait elevations in impulsivity ratings. It is difficult to go here these pathways in studies in current users. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Lawrence1, 2 Jason Luty3 Nadine A.

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Re: gambling addiction hearing aid batteries

Postby Kilar В» 06.06.2019

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Postby Faurn В» 06.06.2019

The interaction term see Fig. Results On the stop-signal test, Go reaction time and stop-signal reaction time were significantly slower in the alcohol-dependent group, compared with healthy batheries. It is important to educate yourself on what these causes may be and also ways you can prevent hearing loss.

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How do you do so? Acute dosing of alcohol also disrupted error-related brain activity in healthy volunteers Ridderinkhof et al. Very often do we receive notes of praise from happy patients that have been helped hearin our office. This adjustment was abolished in the alcohol-dependent group, who were non-significantly faster following just click for source stops.

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Postby Gardak В» 06.06.2019

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